The international markets have a high demand for fossil fuels, and our environment has aggravated with problems caused by the same due to an increase in internal combustion engine vehicles. Taking all this into consideration there is an expanded interest in the development & research of types of batteries used in the hybrid & electric vehicles.
The transportation sector acts as one of the main contributing factors to climatic changes. 23% of the greenhouse gases come from this sector after the industrial sector coming on the top.
The transportation sector now introduces the EV segment which is a green energy solution. It has already become an accepted & popular replacement for vehicles with an internal combustion engine (ICE).
- Introduction – What is Battery & How it Works in EV?
- Types of Batteries used in Electric Vehicles
- Battery parameters to be considered while buying an EV
- Life span
A brief introduction to what a Battery is & What it does in EV?
EV motors react swiftly with high torque and are more efficient against ICE vehicles. We see various commercially successful EV models Today, be it a sports model or an economical model. The design of the battery pack is closely related to the performance of an EV.
So we all know how batteries are used in almost all the appliances we use in our daily lives and our vehicles as well. Energy is converted to electricity with the chemical energy stored in a battery.
The battery consists of a cell called the negative electrode, which has a surplus of electrons that are negatively charged subatomic particles. Electrons flow from the negative to the positive when the two are connected by an electrical cable.
Companies today have come up with a way to use The energy created by these moving electrons to run a motor. Since the vehicle’s engine is powered by it, it must deliver enough current to the motor over some time.
If you’re wondering when and if this battery dies, yes it does. This happens when the number of electrons on the positive & negative side are the same in number and thus no longer skilled in producing an electric flow.
3 Types of Batteries used in Electric Vehicles
The three types of rechargeable batteries recognized by Automobile manufacturers that are suitable for electric car use are lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries & lead-acid batteries.
The Lithium-ion battery
In the early 1990s Lithium batteries came into the commercial, holding an elevated energy density. Unlike most batteries, these are unlikely to lose their charge when not being used. This is a feature called self-discharge.
Science is all about innovation and several experts give credence to lithium-ion batteries that are about the closest science has come to advancing an ideal rechargeable battery. This type of battery is the finest choice for powering electric cars of the imminent future.
Although these batteries are prohibitively expensive but still are the most frequently used battery in electrical vehicles. This probably stands to be their biggest disadvantage. Their production costs are known to be 40% higher than that of nickel batteries.
However, all-out research on the technology behind the battery has led to a decrease in production costs.
The Li-Ion is 1/3 the weight Compared to the lead-acid batteries. It also has three times the cycle life and is three times more powerful. Li-Ion batteries come with An advantage with an energy rate of 140+ Wh/kg.
There are various types of Li batteries are:
- lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP)
- lithium titanate (LTO)
- lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC)
- lithium manganese oxide (LMO)
- lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA)
The Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery
These came into commercial use a little earlier in the late 1980s. NiMH batteries have superior specific energy to lead-acid ones. They hold a value of 68 Wh/kg and a range of 60 to 120 Wh/kg.
With a theoretical voltage of 1.2V, the Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries indicate the quantity of energy stored in the battery. Although it is remarkably lower compared to the Li-Ion batteries and is recyclable.
These batteries are proven well to use in EVs. You can expect your car to run over 100,000 miles with these batteries and an average of 5-7 years of battery life. Regarding their use in EVs, their disadvantages include:
- Low charging efficiency
- Self-discharge up to 12.5% per day at room temperature
- The heat generation rate during fast charging & discharging.
The Lead-Acid Battery
These are the oldest type of battery, formulated in 1859 and still being used. They are recyclable. They hold a mild solution of sulfuric acid and are a kind of wet cell battery. Lead-Acid batteries come with the advantage of being priced at a cheaper rate and have been in use for years.
Lead-acid battery technology is considered old-fashioned but is still definitive & full-grown. This battery type comes with a short life span of 3 years and requires inspection of electrolyte levels.
Considering it is made from lead they are heavy. They provide sufficient energy of 25-50% of the vehicle’s total mass.
Battery Parameters To Consider
Chemical Reactions generate electrons, and there are various chemical reactions used in commercially available batteries. Most alkaline batteries are known to be disposable batteries.
To avoid constant replacements of Automobile batteries they must be rechargeable.
Since you want the best for your EV application, following, these parameters should be considered before picking your battery type:
Various factors influence the life cycle of a battery. You could give EV batteries a life cycle of 8 years or 160,000 km. Some factors before picking your pick would be:
- The purpose of the battery
- Operating conditions
- The depth of battery discharge, but you can generally estimate EV battery life as 8 years or 160,000 km (100,000 miles).
Driving an EV takes a lot of power, which is why it must be managed properly. A carefully designed battery management system (BMS) assures safe operation.
Compared to ICE vehicles this is a disadvantage for EV’s. The cost of a small ICE vehicle and an EV battery system is pretty much the same.
The battery system is an important & significant part of an electric vehicle. With the increase in demand for EVs, there is an increase in the requirement for better performance, reduced weight, better cycling ability, and better driving range.
EV Duniya Editorial: This article is written by Sakshi Nadkarni