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Types of Batteries used in Electric Vehicles & their Parameters

Types of Batteries in Electric Car & its Parameters
Types of Batteries in Electric Car & its Parameters

The international markets have a high demand for fossil fuels, and our environment has aggravated with problems caused by the same due to an increase in internal combustion engine vehicles. Taking all this into consideration there is an expanded interest in the development & research of types of batteries used in the hybrid & electric vehicles.

The transportation sector acts as one of the main contributing factors to climatic changes. 23% of the greenhouse gases come from this sector after the industrial sector coming on the top. 

The transportation sector now introduces the EV segment which is a green energy solution. It has already become an accepted & popular replacement for vehicles with an internal combustion engine (ICE).

Article Guide:

A brief introduction to what a Battery is & What it does in EV?

EV motors react swiftly with high torque and are more efficient against ICE vehicles. We see various commercially successful EV models Today, be it a sports model or an economical model. The design of the battery pack is closely related to the performance of an EV

So we all know how batteries are used in almost all the appliances we use in our daily lives and our vehicles as well. Energy is converted to electricity with the chemical energy stored in a battery.

How Batteries work in Electric Car

How Batteries work in Electric Car

The battery consists of a cell called the negative electrode, which has a surplus of electrons that are negatively charged subatomic particles. Electrons flow from the negative to the positive when the two are connected by an electrical cable.

Companies today have come up with a way to use the energy created by these moving electrons to run a motor. Since the vehicle’s engine is powered by it, it must deliver enough current to the motor over some time.

Well, does this battery expire? Unfortunately, the battery has an expiry date after a few years. Until then, you can use the battery without a hitch.

The battery dies when there is no electric flow between the electrodes. Usually, when the number of electrons on the positive & negative side is in the same number, there is no current flow. At this particular period, the battery expires, and one has to replace it with another battery. 

3 Types of Batteries used in Electric Vehicles

The three types of rechargeable batteries recognized by Automobile manufacturers that are suitable for electric car use are Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries & Lead-acid batteries

The Lithium-ion battery

In the early 1990s Lithium batteries came into the commercial, holding an elevated energy density. Unlike most batteries, these are unlikely to lose their charge when not being used. This is a feature called self-discharge.

The Lithium-ion battery working

The Lithium-ion battery working

Science is all about innovation and several experts give credence to lithium-ion batteries that are about the closest science has come to advancing an ideal rechargeable battery. This type of battery is the finest choice for powering electric cars of the imminent future. 

Although these batteries are prohibitively expensive but still are the most frequently used battery in electrical vehicles. This probably stands to be their biggest disadvantage. Their production costs are known to be 40% higher than that of nickel batteries.

Li batteries in Electric Vehicle

Li batteries in Electric Vehicle source: Wikipedia

However, all-out research on the technology behind the battery has led to a decrease in production costs.

The Li-Ion is 1/3 the weight Compared to the lead-acid batteries. It also has three times the cycle life and is three times more powerful. Li-Ion batteries come with an advantage with an energy rate of 140+ Wh/kg

There are various types of Lithium batteries:

  • lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP)
  • lithium titanate (LTO)
  • lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC)
  • lithium manganese oxide (LMO)
  • lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA)

The Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery

These came into commercial use a little earlier in the late 1980s. NiMH batteries have superior specific energy to lead-acid ones. They hold a value of 68 Wh/kg and a range of 60 to 120 Wh/kg

Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Working

Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Working

With a theoretical voltage of 1.2V, the Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries indicate the quantity of energy stored in the battery. Although it is remarkably lower compared to the Li-Ion batteries and is recyclable. 

Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Used in Electric Car

Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Used in Electric Car

These batteries are proven well to use in EVs. You can expect your car to run over 100,000 miles with these batteries and an average of 5-7 years of battery life. Regarding their use in EVs, their disadvantages include:

  • Low charging efficiency
  • Self-discharge up to 12.5% per day at room temperature
  • The heat generation rate during fast charging & discharging. 

The Lead-Acid Battery

These are the oldest type of battery, formulated in 1859 and still being used. They are recyclable. They hold a mild solution of sulfuric acid and are a kind of wet cell battery. Lead-Acid batteries come with the advantage of being priced at a cheaper rate and have been in use for years.    

Lead-acid battery technology is considered old-fashioned but is still definitive & full-grown. This battery type comes with a short life span of 3 years and requires inspection of electrolyte levels. 

Lead Acid Battery for Electric Car

Lead Acid Battery for Electric Car

Considering it is made from lead they are heavy. They provide sufficient energy of 25-50% of the vehicle’s total mass. 

Are Electric Car Batteries Bad for the Environment?

Well, the answer to this question isn’t direct. Electric vehicle batteries have their set of pros and cons. Some claim that the batteries support electric vehicles that have no emissions into the air. Thus, reducing air pollution. 

While a few researchers claim that the extraction of lithium for making lithium-ion batteries is polluting the environment. It’s seen that over 60% of electric cars have adopted lithium-ion batteries. 

According to usatoday.com, the lithium, when accidentally flushed into the river, killed all the aquatic animals and poisoned the entire river in China. However, recycling lithium batteries resulted in no harmful effects to nature. 

If you ask electric car batteries to be bad for the environment, there is no obvious answer. It has both pros and cons. 

However, the researchers and EV batteries manufacturing industries are taking enough measures to reduce the environmental effects of lithium-ion or any other EV batteries. 

Battery Parameters To Consider

Chemical Reactions generate electrons, and there are various chemical reactions used in commercially available batteries. Most alkaline batteries are known to be disposable batteries. 

To avoid constant replacements of Automobile batteries they must be rechargeable.

Since you want the best for your EV application, following, these parameters should be considered before picking your battery type: 

  1. Life Span

    Various factors influence the life cycle of a battery. You could give EV batteries a life cycle of 8 years or 160,000 km. Some factors before picking your pick would be:

  • The purpose of the battery
  • Operating conditions
  • The depth of battery discharge, but you can generally estimate EV battery life as 8 years or 160,000 km (100,000 miles).
  1. Safety

    Driving an EV takes a lot of power, which is why it must be managed properly. A carefully designed battery management system (BMS) assures safe operation.

  2. Cost

    Compared to ICE vehicles this is a disadvantage for EV’s. The cost of a small ICE vehicle and an EV battery system is pretty much the same. 


The battery system is an important & significant part of an electric vehicle. With the increase in demand for EVs, there is an increase in the requirement for better performance, reduced weight, better cycling ability, and better driving range.

This is everything about the battery types and their parameters. We hope you’ve enjoyed this information about electric vehicle batteries. 

If you think we’ve missed any vital concept, do let us know in the comment section below.

EV Duniya Editorial: This article is written by Sakshi Nadkarni

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  1. Very Well Explained

  2. Great Writeup.
    This will surely help most of promising few OEMs and Their teams who think Battery is nothing but a parking cells. Thanks.

  3. very good experience

  4. i believe electric vehicles should come with a small engine to recharge the batteries whilst on the open road in rural areas or on motorways etc. this way you can keep the batteries charged whilst on long trips. no different than a diesel electric submarine. as you know, submarines only run the diesel generators to charge their batteries, then they shut them down when they are full. you will increase the mileage distance now because you don’t have to recharge your batteries. you could have less batteries this way and still have a rechargeable system in place to charge your vehicle over night whilst resting. rules still would have to be put in place where and when you can run the engine. this would be idea in an emergency situation to save being towed because of a flat battery.

  5. fundamentally explained with required figures.

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